_Livro_Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems With Emphasis on Trichogramma | Sex | Fertilisation
For example, in , the total area treated with releases of T. Figure 2 gives an overall view of the sugarcane area treated with BC in Brazil Parra et al. Small areas of tomatoes are treated with T. Other BC programs have been conducted, but their results still need to be determined, as for example, a program to control the Huanglongbing HLB psyllid vector in Citrus with releases of Tamarixia radiata Waterston Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Parra et al. Problems and challenges in implementing BC programs in large areas in Brazil. Although the use of BC has grown in Brazil, there is a need to develop our own technology to apply BC to huge crop areas in the country.
The main challenges are:. Extension field days are needed, to demonstrate what BC is and how a given BC agent parasitizes or preys on pests;. Techniques using pheromones and remote sensing will need to be developed;. Companies that produce poor-quality BC agents might eventually discredit the value of BC for growers. Therefore, quality control of laboratory-produced insects is essential, as is the establishment of standards for monitoring insect quality Lenteren, ;.
In many cases, by the time the product is received by the user, the natural enemies are already dead or unable to emerge. If natural enemies are not properly protected at the time of the release, high temperatures often encountered in the field on plant or soil surface can affect their emergence;. Recent international discussions on "Access and Benefit Sharing" must be taken into consideration Cock et al.
Accordingly, if pesticides are needed, they must be selective, i.
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These ants can prey on natural enemies when they are exposed and susceptible. Therefore, releases must be conducted in such a manner as to protect the natural enemies from predation, such as enclosure in starch capsules for Trichogramma. In large crop areas in Brazil, releases cannot be done by farmhands on foot, which is impractical and time-consuming.
The methods of releasing natural enemies must be rapid and effective. To control H. Other means have been studied to enhance the release of natural enemies in large crops, such as the use of drones or airplanes;. All these factors lead to changes in the beneficial and pest entomofauna. The diversity of crop pests as well as their habits change constantly, an effect that is reinforced by the massive use of chemical products;.
This partial control leads to changes in the beneficial fauna as well as in the pests, and, therefore, requires appropriate adjustments in the use of BC. Brazil, a leader in the development of tropical agriculture, will have to create a BC model adapted to the local conditions, extensive farmlands, and dynamic features of its agricultural system. This dynamism leads to continual changes in beneficial and pest populations because of the different farming systems used, such as no-tillage, continuity of crops, crop succession and rotation, irrigation, new varieties, large-scale use of transgenic plants, emergence of new pests, etc.
Additionally, Brazil is progressively becoming an exporting country and, therefore, must adapt to international market requirements for chemical residues, which create difficulties in achieving a sustainable agriculture, an urgent issue in modern times. BC must be implemented as one contributive component of IPM, since it is difficult to control pest populations using BC alone. In the case of crops that have numerous pests, when agrochemicals are necessary, selective products, as well as rotation of active ingredients, should be employed in order to prevent pests from developing resistance Conservative Biological Control.
In any event, the culture of applying agrochemicals prevalent among growers hampers the progress of BC in Brazil, despite the excellent results described in this review. The pressure exerted by multinational pesticide companies leads to retrocessions, as happened with soybeans, when the virus Baculovirus anticarsia was used to control the velvetbean caterpillar on 2 million ha in the s and s.
The use of this virus has since drastically declined, and today the total area treated area is less than , ha. The recent introduction of H. In this case, growers have begun to implement IPM to control H. Nevertheless, the amount of BC agents available for use on H. Recently, companies have started producing high-quality natural enemies for combating this pest.
Approximately species of natural enemies are available for purchase worldwide Lenteren, In Brazil, the number of available BC agents is limited to ten species of insects and mites only Parra, Because few companies are presently marketing BC agents in Brazil, adequate quantities of natural enemies are available for sugarcane only, because mills that produce sugar and ethanol have their own natural enemy production laboratories.
However, nowadays most BC agents are produced by private companies specialized in controlling sugarcane pests Parra, b. The degree of specialization of parasitoids, which generally have a narrow range of hosts, ensures their superiority as BC agents. The current extensive use of chemicals in citrus, soybean and cotton crops in Brazil results in unbalanced systems, where BC cannot be established. In order to enhance BC in Brazil, production systems must be planned in the context of the enormous climatic and edaphic diversity of our country, so as to take advantage of our biodiversity in BC programs in tropical regions.
It is important not to restrict programs to mimic the technology used in countries with different characteristics and conditions because such methods have proved, on the whole, to be inefficient in Brazil. I am grateful to Prof. Carlos F. Alves, S. Bennet, F. Potential for biological control of selected pests of importance in Latin America.view-on-black.com/4780-sms-spy.php
_Livro_Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems With Emphasis on Trichogramma
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Optimization of rearing methods for Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Hemiptera: Liviidae and Tamarixia radiata Waterston, Hymenoptera: Eulophidae , for large-scale production and field establishment of the parasitoid. Gallo, D. Hagenbucher, S. Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids. Haji, F. Hensley, S.
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